Personal Trainer, Liverpool Street.

The JDP A-Z Guide To Health and Fitness

The JDP A-Z Guide To Health and Fitness

The Health and Fitness industry is MASSIVE.

It is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and we are happy to be a part of it! Ranging from workouts to diets, expos to health retreats and so on. Here at JDP Fitness we have been busy resourcing everything to make it easy for you to locate, understand and hopefully take some up. Elite Personal Trainer Scarlet Hollands has categorized everything for you alphabetically. So, if you are confused, intrigued or just fancy a catch up on whats going on in the crazy, ever growing world of Health and Fitness … Read on!

Scarlet Hollands, Personal Trainer, LiVERPOOL Street

Aerobic Fitness

You may have heard this phrase before, but not totally understood it. Some people also misconstrue what “Aerobic Fitness” actually is and it is actually very simple. Your aerobic fitness is a true reflection of your ability to take the oxygen you breathe in and use it efficiently enough to produce energy for your muscle cells. Many factors influence your aerobic fitness, lung efficiency (VO2), gender, age, current training level and DNA makeup. Your ability to understand al the various ingredients that go into aerobic fitness will help you train intelligently to achieve optimal performance.

Matt Williams, Personal Trainer, Fitness Blog


Apart from Tyson Fury, how many out of shape, unfit boxers do you see –- The sport is a tough one. Training for conditioning, skill and strength, it will certainly out hairs on your chest! Founder of JDP Fitness Jason knows only too well, being ex military, the arduous boxing training regime. “Training for hours, eating like a king and sleeping like a baby! I must have dropped 10kg in 2 months! Although this sport is massively technical, the conditioning really matters. If you can stay in the fight long enough, you’ll have a chance of winning!”

woman with boxing gloves boxing man with boxing pads


Most of us get annoyed at them when they hog the roads riding in pairs, are traveling incredibly slow, adding time to your journey, but get over it! It is something that Great Britain are very good at! From Chris Hoy to Chris Froome, the Great Britain team win everything. These guys aren’t naturally gifted with a massive VO2 max threshold or the great power their quadriceps pump out. These guys work! The WATT bike is used for watt/power output. Seen in most gyms now, these bikes have been a great addition to the cycling world. But it doesn’t just stop there, the weights room is where you find most cyclists. If they aren’t on a bike, they are normally near a squat rack.



Depending on where you are training, these muscle building tools can be found either on a rack or scattered everywhere on the floor for you to scurry around to try to find a matching set (pet hate). Dumbbells are a great addition to your workout. They add loads of qualities. Not only do they allow you to change your movement in pressing or pulling (to a more natural plane of movement) but they also target your muscles separately, as opposed to a barbell, which is a fixed weight. Dumbbells come in every weight, usually ranging from 1kg-50kg in most gyms.

Jason Patmore Personal Trainer, London

Elliptical Machine

Otherwise known as the cross trainer, these machines, usually fo0und in the cardio area in most gyms, are a great way to warm up and cool down pre/post exercise. They can also be used for interval training and rehabilitation workouts. Due to the non-impact element of the machine, gym goers who are recovering from lower limb injuries love this. Very popular for interval training as most elliptical machines have “quick” options allowing either a change in pace or an increase of load, both which will increase the intensity to your workout.


Foam Rolling

Probably the most painful you will ever do. Self-myofascial release, aka “foam rolling” has transformed the fitness world. This technique can be used by everyone. The most renowned athletes, coaches and therapists use it and so should the everyday gym goer to keep the body ticking over and free from potential niggles and long term injuries. Recent information, technology and affordable products have introduced an increasing array of training and recovery methods.

Self myo-fascial release is a fancy term for self-massage to release muscles tightness or trigger points. This method can be performed with a foam roller, lacrosse ball or your own hands. By applying pressure to specific points on your body you are able to aid in the recovery of muscles and assist in returning them to normal function meaning being elastic, healthy and ready to perform at a moments notice.



Still relatively new to the UK, Gyrotonics is gaining huge popularity worldwide as a totally new concept in exercise. The system was created in the USA by Juliu Horvath who has combined years of experience as a dancer and gymnast with his in depth knowledge of yoga and Chinese medicine. The Gyrotonic system uses equipment designed around the human body utilising weights, pulleys and wheels to create a wide range of spherical movement which articulates and mobilises the joints while strengthening the body’s core musculature. Particular attention is paid to increasing flexibility in the spine, releasing tension in the upper body and improving co-ordination through movement.


Heart Rate

Heart rate, also known as a pulse, is the number of times a person’s heart beats per minute. A normal heart rate depends on the individual, age, body size, heart conditions, whether the person is sitting or moving, medication use and even air temperature but on average, a healthy resting heart rate (RHR) is around 70 beats per minute (BPM) in an adult. Your heart is a muscle and just like strengthening any other muscle in the body we can do the same with the heart which will improve its overall function and performance whilst lowering your RHR. Knowing also your heart’s maximum capacity during intense exercise will also help improve your heart’s health as well as being able to gage wether your input is too much or not enough. Here is a quick and simple calculation to work out your personal maximum heart rate (MHR):

Subtract your age from 220: – 200 – 24 = 196 BPM.


Interval Training

Interval training is rapidly becoming a more popular and effective way to train. It’s hugely time efficient with some workouts lasting a max of 20 mins and its muscle building and fat burning results of course are its best seller.

Try our home 20 minute home HIIT Blast

The most popular form on interval training is most commonly referred to as HIIT. (High Intensity Interval Training) This simply means working out alternating in periods of high intensity to lower intensity on repeat. (EG: 20 seconds of high intensity activity followed by 20 seconds of lower recovery activity. The great thing about interval training is you can completely design a workout that is best suited to you and your capabilities. For the beginner you can keep the high intensity time a little lower and build up that time and intensity with adequate recovery time in between and for the experienced athlete you can really push the amount of time you are training as hard as you can at your maximum capacity and performance. This can also be performed in any aspect of training: strength, bodyweight, cardio etc.

HIIT Training

Jogger’s Nipple

Also known as Fissure of the Nipple, it’s a condition caused by friction from the repeated rubbing of a t-shirt or upper body clothing against the nipple during prolonger periods of exercise. In a bad case the skin can split which can cause bleeding and potentially infection so if you have something like a marathon to prepare for, it would be wise to think ahead of some preventative solutions to avoid possible risk:

* Avoid wearing loose fitted t-shirts or upper body clothing

* Apply an anti-chaffing balm or petroleum jelly

* Wear rash guards or nipple guards

* Wear a sports bra, shimmel, compression vest as a form of chest binding clothing.



Kettlebells are a variation to the dumbbells and are used to perform ballistic exercises that combine cardiovascular, strength and flexibility training. Their basic movements consist of swing, snatch and clean & jerk which all engage the entire body at once. Unlike exercises performed on the dumbbells or barbells, kettlebell exercises often involve large numbers of repetitions. Kettlebell training is extremely strenuous on the back, shoulders and core so if these are something you are unfamiliar with, definitely seek professional instruction from a qualified instructor and ensure you progress steadily to improve muscular endurance.



A ligament is a connective tissue that connects bone to bone. The primary function of a ligament is to provide stability and to prevent movement that may damage a joint. Probably the most important thing to know about ligaments that most people are unaware of and completely take for granted are these guys CANNOT naturally regenerate so ligament damage can potentially be pretty catastrophic resulting in a long recovery and rehab period. Knees tend to be the most problematic area for ligaments and many people suffer with knee pain. The 2 most frequent injuries are when the ligament is overstretched (sprained) or torn (ruptured) so always make sure you thoroughly warm up and cool down to prevent these occurring and also with whatever you are training, whether thats a marathon or a heavy squat session, be aware of form and technique and always ask when

in doubt because knee injuries can be very painful and a very long-winded recovery.



This is simply the ability to move or be moved freely and easily. Another thing that many don’t dedicate enough time working and improving. Being sufficiently mobile particularly in the joints will allow for a dramatic increase in performance as well a decrease in risk of injury and also healthy bones, joints and muscles within the body. Mobility drills/exercises are to be done at the beginning of a workout alongside an adequate warm up. These tend to be fairly simple and can usually be performed with ease. Our body is completely reliant on being able to move freely without stress and our flexibility is dependent on the range of motion in our muscles.


Negative Resistance Training

Negative Training is one of the most powerful training techniques for rapid strength gains. Also known as eccentric training, it involves loading a weight movement in only the down or muscle-lengthening phase. For example, if you are doing a negative bench press, you would start with the weight in the top position |(the weight would be more than you could lift on your own if you had to push it back up), lower that heavy weight under control to the bottom position of the exercise, then have a partner help you return the weight back up to the top position. Time under tension is key here to improving muscular strength.



Overtraining is something in which many people fail to recognise before it is too late and occurs mainly with weight and resistance training. It is the result of giving your body more physical work or stress then it can handle and can result in problems such as :- persistent muscle soreness, increased incident of injuries, loss of motivation, decrease in appetite, insomnia or irritability. All of these symptoms can be avoided if you know your body and can understand when enough is enough. Some simple resolutions can include:- complete rest, reducing the volume/intensity of training, deep tissue massage, sufficient calorie intake and split training (splitting your training program so different muscle groups are worked on different days). Remember to allow yourself to take a break from time to time and listen to your body. It is when we rest that the body has time to recover, rebuild and come back stringer then before!



One for the guys in particular. Pecs. These guys are the muscles that are located on the front of the chest and connect with the bones of the upper arm and shoulder. Not only built for aesthetics, although some may argue that .. but more importantly it serves to flex, extend and rotate the humerus (the long bone or the upper arm) and built and strengthened to allow for improved posture coupled with training the upper back and lats. Ladies, you too should be training chest also! Building up strength in the chest will avoid risk in injury as well as eliminating the potential risk of developing muscular imbalances in your body which can lead to bad posture, stringy or bony looking chest and an inability to perform other exercises correctly due to having a pair of chest muscles that can’t pull or push their own weight.

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The Quadriceps (Quads) are the 4 large muscles located at the top of the leg on the thigh. Its primary function is extension of the knee joint. They are crucial in walking, running, jumping and squatting. Also because the rectus femoris attaches to the ilium (top of the pelvic girdle) that is also responsible for hip flexion. Having strong quads/legs allows for more then just an impressive heavy 1RM squat, it brings a multitude of different benefits. Things like: Healthier heart – being able to run longer or lift heavier, both will lead to an increase in a stronger heart. Increase in muscle – the more muscle on your frame the higher your metabolism will be therefore the more fat your body will burn during exercise. A good bum – lets be honest, everyone wants a nice, perky set of glutes and while genetics plays a small role, training your legs with squats, deadlifts, press and curls you will be sure to build yourself a superb looking derrière!

Jackson Hinch Personal Trainer London

Resistance Training

It’s simply another term for exercising your muscles using an opposing force (i.e. dumbbells). Formally known as “weight training”, this was changed because this phrase invoked images of huge sweaty men with bulging biceps and wasn’t particularly popular with the women. Resistance training, regardless of age, gender, experience, done well will bring you huge health benefits as well as obviously improved aesthetics and strength. It decreases risk of osteoporosis by building bone mass, lowers high blood pressure, decreases risk of diabetes, increases HDLs – high density lipoproteins (good cholesterol), reduces risk of cardiovascular disease and reduces stress and anxiety. Follow up your session with a high quality protein shake to ensure maximum gains.

30 Best Fat Loss Tips


Spinning, or indoor cycling, as an organised activity, in a form of exercise with classes focused on endurance, strength, intervals, high intensity sprints and recovery all of which is performed on a specialised indoor, stationary bike. This concept had been around for a while but over recent years has been developed into a much more full bodied, fun and enjoyable workout with brands such as Boomcycle, 1Rebel, Psycle and Les Mills RPM to name a few in London, elaborating on the original exercise to music concept. Some now involve getting on and off the bike, some introducing various equipment such as dumbbells. The workout itself is a great mix of endurance and strength training particularly for the legs and also targets massively the cardiovascular system. If group exercise with good music and atmosphere is something more suited to you, definitely give this a go!

Young People - group of women and men - doing sport Spinning in


The moving belt, probably the most familiar piece of kit known to most but at the same time probably the most hated piece of apparatus to many. Most of us aren’t exactly thrilled at the prospect of getting on here and running for 60 minutes however there is a lot more versatility to this machine then one may think. Interval training on here is a great way to get in some cardio with out the prospect of wanting to break a leg as an excuse to stop the torture of running on the spot for an hour! You can set the speed and hill incline to a setting that will challenge you to really push yourself for a quick burst of a 20 second sprint for example and jump off either side for a 10 second rest and repeat.


Ultra Marathon

Yes these exist! A marathon that is longer and harder then a standard marathon. Usually a half marathon is around 21km (13.1 miles), a marathon is just over 42km (26.1 miles) and an ultra marathon is anything that exceeds the distance of a regular marathon! These are of course only ran by the more advanced/professional athlete and there are some pretty incredible ultra marathons out there.

Marathon de Sables: 6 day trek of 154 miles through the Sahara.

Hardrock 100: 48 hour 100 miles race inclusive of a 33,992 ascent and decent.

Badwater Ultramarathon: 135 mile through Death Valley non-stop.

But the longest in the World is:

Self Transcendence 3100 Mile Race: with 52 days to complete the race, runners should average 59.62 miles a day!



Another hugely effective cardiovascular machine which brings climbing indoors. The versaclimber has been around for a while but many shy away from this strange looking machine as working out on the treadmill or cross trainer seems more straight forward. Simply you are imitating the movement of climbing. However let me fill you in on some great benefits of training on a versaclimber:

* You’re on your feet – we sit enough so why would we then continue to sit on a bike?

* No impact – a high level of muscular recruitment without the stress on the joints

* Can’t go wrong – simply get on and climb, not much technique is involved

* Easily Scalable – Move slower of faster depending on level of fitness and intensity


Warm Up

Something that many neglect but probably the most important part of a workout as it allows for the body to sufficiently and internally warm up and begins an increase in blood flow to muscles and helping to make the muscles more pliable to begin an intense workout with avoiding potential injury. A satisfactory warm up should include mobility drills, basic stretches, particularly the muscles that will be used during workout, foam rolling to help release in any particularly stiff or tight areas and a gradual increase in heart rate to get the blood pumping throughout the entire body and muscles.



An exercise system that integrates the mind and body by focusing on controlled breathing, flexibility and posture and can boost mental and physical wellbeing. There are a broad variety of practices, schools and goals. The practice originated in India around 5000 years ago and have been spread and adapted around the world today. The great thing about yoga is it is a practice that anyone and everyone can partake in. There are no limitations and its is a great way to increase strength, flexibility and balance and of course touching on the technique of meditation. It also is beneficial for people with hypertension, heart disease, general aches and pains, depression and stress.



Zumba is a Spanish word that means “buzz like a bee and move fast,”. Zumba first came to be by a mistake made by fitness trainer, Alberto “Beto” Perez. When Perez mistakenly forgot to bring along his normal music tape to his exercise class, he grabbed a Latin dance music tape and began teaching his class some fun dance moves that he knew from dancing in Salsa clubs. From there, it became a favorite class at the gym where he taught. Perez brought Zumba with him to Miami in 1999 and from there it’s popularity has soared and spread across the globe.




author: Matt Williams


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